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Writing & Citing: MLA

How to cite info sources in various citation styles (ex. MLA, APA, Chicago, etc.)

MLA Style

Modern Language Association (MLA) Style is the citation style most commonly used in English, Humanities, and composition courses. It the second most commonly used citation style at St. Andrews. The MLA Handbook 9th edition, published in 2017, is the most current edition of this manual. 

Sample MLA Papers

Works Cited Examples

In-text Citation:

(Mims 31)


Mims stated that ... (31).

Reference Entry:

Mims Christopher. Arriving Today: From Factory to Front Door--Why Everything Has Changed About How and What We Buy. First ed. Harper Business, 2021.

In-text Citation:

(Grady et al. 450)


Grady et al. stated that ... (450).

Reference Entry:

Grady J.S, et al. “Emotions in Storybooks: A Comparison of Storybooks That Represent Ethnic and Racial Groups in the United States.” Psychology of Popular Media Culture, vol. 8, no. 3, Fall 2019, pp. 207–217, ProQuest, doi:10.1037/ppm0000185.

In-Text Citation:



Bologna stated that ....

Reference Entry:

Bologna, Caroline. "Why Some People With Anxiety Love Watching Horror Films." HuffPost, 31 Oct 2019,

In-text citation:

(World's Leading Vaccine Expert)


Reference entry:

"World's Leading Vaccine Expert Fact-Checks COVID-19 Vaccine Conspiracy." YouTube, uploaded by Asian Boss, 5 Jun 2020,

In-text Citation:

("Tell me about")

Reference Entry:

“Tell me about confirmation bias” prompt. ChatGPT, 13 Feb. version, OpenAI, 16 Feb. 2023,

Helpful MLA Resources